DID YOU KNOW?
- Discontinue infusion and obtain an emergency CT scan if the
patient develops severe headache, acute hypertension, nausea, or
vomiting, or has worsening neurologic examination. 2
DID YOU KNOW?
Activase® (alteplase) is indicated for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Exclude intracranial hemorrhage as the primary cause of stroke signs and symptoms prior to initiation of treatment. Initiate treatment as soon as possible but within 3 hours after symptom onset.
Activase is indicated for use in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) for the reduction of mortality and reduction of the incidence of heart failure.
Limitation of Use: The risk of stroke may outweigh the benefit produced by thrombolytic therapy in patients whose AMI puts them at low risk for death or heart failure.
Activase is indicated for the lysis of acute massive pulmonary embolism (PE), defined as:
Do not administer Activase to treat acute ischemic stroke in the following situations in which the risk of bleeding is greater than the potential benefit: current intracranial hemorrhage (ICH); subarachnoid hemorrhage; active internal bleeding; recent (within 3 months) intracranial or intraspinal surgery or serious head trauma; presence of intracranial conditions that may increase the risk of bleeding (e.g., some neoplasms, arteriovenous malformations, or aneurysms); bleeding diathesis; and current severe uncontrolled hypertension.
Do not administer Activase to treat acute myocardial infarction or pulmonary embolism in the following situations in which the risk of bleeding is greater than the potential benefit: active internal bleeding; history of recent stroke; recent (within 3 months) intracranial or intraspinal surgery or serious head trauma; presence of intracranial conditions that may increase the risk of bleeding; bleeding diathesis; and current severe uncontrolled hypertension.
Activase can cause significant, sometimes fatal internal or external bleeding, especially at arterial and venous puncture sites. Avoid intramuscular injections and trauma to the patient. Perform venipunctures carefully and only as required. Fatal cases of hemorrhage associated with traumatic intubation in patients administered Activase have been reported. Aspirin and heparin have been administered concomitantly with and following infusion with Activase in the management of acute myocardial infarction and pulmonary embolism. The concomitant administration of heparin and aspirin with and following infusions of Activase for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke during the first 24 hours after symptom onset has not been investigated. Because heparin, aspirin, or Activase may cause bleeding complications, carefully monitor for bleeding, especially at arterial puncture sites. Hemorrhage can occur 1 or more days after administration of Activase, while patients are still receiving anticoagulant therapy. If serious bleeding occurs, terminate the Activase infusion, and treat appropriately.
In the following conditions, the risks of bleeding with Activase are increased and should be weighed against the anticipated benefits: recent major surgery or procedure; cerebrovascular disease; recent intracranial hemorrhage; recent gastrointestinal or genitourinary bleeding; recent trauma; hypertension; acute pericarditis; subacute bacterial endocarditis; hemostatic defects including those secondary to severe hepatic or renal disease; significant hepatic dysfunction; pregnancy; diabetic hemorrhagic retinopathy or other hemorrhagic ophthalmic conditions; septic thrombophlebitis or occluded AV cannula at seriously infected site; advanced age; and patients currently receiving oral anticoagulants, or any other condition in which bleeding constitutes a significant hazard or would be particularly difficult to manage because of its location.
Hypersensitivity, including urticarial / anaphylactic reactions, have been reported after administration of Activase. Rare fatal outcome for hypersensitivity was reported. Angioedema has been observed during and up to 2 hours after Activase infusion in patients treated for acute ischemic stroke and acute myocardial infarction. In many cases, patients received concomitant angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Monitor patients treated with Activase during and for several hours after infusion for hypersensitivity. If signs of hypersensitivity occur, e.g. anaphylactoid reaction or angioedema develops, discontinue the Activase infusion and promptly institute appropriate therapy (e.g., antihistamines, intravenous corticosteroids, epinephrine).
The use of thrombolytics can increase the risk of thrombo-embolic events in patients with high likelihood of left heart thrombus, such as patients with mitral stenosis or atrial fibrillation. Activase has not been shown to treat adequately underlying deep vein thrombosis in patients with PE. Consider the possible risk of re-embolization due to the lysis of underlying deep venous thrombi in this setting.
Cholesterol embolism, sometimes fatal, has been reported rarely in patients treated with thrombolytic agents; the true incidence is unknown. It is associated with invasive vascular procedures (e.g., cardiac catheterization, angiography, vascular surgery) and/or anticoagulant therapy.
Coagulation tests and/or measures of fibrinolytic activity may be unreliable during Activase therapy unless specific precautions are taken to prevent in vitro artifacts. When present in blood at pharmacologic concentrations, Activase remains active under in vitro conditions, which can result in degradation of fibrinogen in blood samples removed for analysis.
The most frequent adverse reaction associated with Activase therapy is bleeding.
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Step 1: Remove the protective cap from the top of the Activase vial and the vial of SWFI. Swab the top of each vial with an alcohol wipe to reduce the risk of contamination.
Step 2: Using the large-bore needle and syringe, withdraw 50 mL of SWFI. Do not use Bacteriostatic Water for Injection, USP. Do not prime the syringe with air. Safely discard the diluent vial according to institutional procedures.
Step 3: Insert the syringe into the stopper on the 50-mg vial of Activase and inject the contents, directing the stream into the lyophilized cake. DO NOT USE IF VACUUM IS NOT PRESENT. Safely discard the needle and syringe according to institutional procedures.
Step 4: Mix the solution with a gentle swirl. DO NOT SHAKE. Slight foaming of the solution is normal. Let the solution stand undisturbed for several minutes to allow any large bubbles to dissipate. Visually inspect the Activase solution for particulate matter and discoloration before administration.
a Although it is desirable to know the results of these tests before administering Activase, fibrinolytic therapy should not be delayed while awaiting results unless: 1) there is clinical suspicion of a bleeding abnormality or thrombocytopenia, 2) the patient has received heparin or warfarin, or 3) the patient has received other anticoagulants (direct thrombin inhibitors or direct factor Xa inhibitors).
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